A Change in the color of a rug due to differences in the wool or dye batch. The color change runs across the rug, and is most likely to occur at the top.
Asymmetric knot:
A knot that may be open to the right or the left. Also known as Persian or Senneh knot.
A symbol of longevity; a favorite motif in Chinese art.
A design around the edge of a rug, surrounding the field. The border usually includes a wide bank with a repeating design, called the main border.
A pear-shaped figure often used in oriental rug designs. Characteristic of the paisley pattern, the boteh may represent a leaf, bush or a pine cone.
A Chinese figure that connotes great age when used in conjunction with other symbols.
A symbol of family togetherness, regarded as a good omen.
The combing of fibers with wire bristle brushes prior to spinning.
A grid on paper with colored spaces to guide rug weavers in the execution of a rug's design.
Chain stitch:
A crochet stitch used in rug construction that consists of successive loops to lock the final weft in place at the end of a rug.
One of four emblems of literature and science. Others are the harp books and paintings.
Cloud band:
A curved, horseshoe-shaped motif in Chinese carpet, used especially to fill vacant spaces.
A loss of dye color at spots of friction or wear.
A flatwoven rug from India, usually made of cotton or wool.
Endless knot:
A bhuddist emblem symbolizing long duration, often used with other symbols.
An asymmetric, or Persian pile knot.
The part of a rug's design surrounded by the border. The field may be blank or contain medallions or an over-all pattern.
Any rug woven without a knotted pile.
The combination of warps and wefts in the body of a rug.
Warps extending from the ends of a rug, which are treated in several ways to prevent the wefts and knots from unravelling.
The interlaced combination of warp and weft that comprises the fabric. In pile rugs, the ground is referred to as the foundation.
Guard stripe:
Stripes or lesser borders on either side of the main border.
A medallion, either octagonal or angular in shape, used in Turkman designs. It is often repeated to form an all-over pattern in the field.
Herati pattern:
A design consisting of a flower in a diamond, with leaves outside and parallel to the diamond's sides.
Jufti knot:
A knot tied over four warps instead of the usual two.
The Persian term for a runner, 21/2' by 31/2'.
A tapestry-like woven rug.
Any fine wool.
Lotus flower:
A Bhuddist emblem of summer, happiness and maturity, regarded as a sacred flower.
The ground or field of a rug.
The large enclosed portion of a design, usually in the center. Typical shapes are diamonds, octagons and hexagons.
Cotton thread whose strength and sheen have been enhanced by treating with alkali under pressure.
A breed of sheep that produces very fine wool. Originally raised in Spain, merino sheep whose wool is used in rugs are also raised in Australia and England.
Mina khani:
An all-over design consisting of two or more flower blossoms connected by a diamond lattice.
The weaving technique of certain Pakistani and Indian rugs.
A design or pattern.
One loop of a pile knot around a warp seen from the back of the rug.
A treatment of selvages where yarn is wrapped or interwoven with a yarn that is not part of the foundation weft.
Applying dye or stain to the front of a rug after it is woven.
Peace emblem:
A round, maze-like symbol used in rug design that connotes peace and longevity.
Peach blossom:
An emblem of spring, which is considered the blossom of the fruit of life.
Peach border:
A dotted interior border pattern used as a frame to separate the center design from the outside border.
The flower of wealth and respectability used in rug design.
The nap of the rug, or the tufts remaining after the knotted yarns are clipped.
Plain weave:
The simplest interlacing of warp and weft.
A piece of a rug sewn or woven into a hole of another rug.
Two or more yarns spun together.
Prayer rug:
A rug with a representation of a mosque or arched prayer area. Columns may be shown supporting the arch with a lamp hanging from the arch's apex.
The plum blossom, a symbol of beauty that often symbolizes winter, used in rug design.
A Persian mat of about 3' by 2 '.Rofu: A Persian term meaning a repair that is not evident.
The edge warps of a rug and the foundation weft around those warps.
A flatweave rug made from a technique that produces a herringbone effect.
The direction of a yarn's twist.
The average length of fibers in a yarn.
Symmetric knot:
A knot tied on two warps; also known as the Giordes or Turkish knot.
Tapestry weave:
Any variety of weaves where the pattern is created by ground wefts that do not run from end to end.
Thunder line:
A border pattern that stems from prehistoric hieroglyphics.
Reversals in direction of the new wefts.
Comprising the structure, parallel warp yarns run the length of the rug, and are interlaced with wefts.
A rug where warps are more closely spaced than wefts, and wefts are concealed. In a balanced plain weave rug, warps and wefts are equally visible.
Warp offset:
A technique where some warps are held tightly in place, while others are held in place loosely.
A chemical solution used after weaving to soften a rug's colors and increase its luster.
The yarns woven horizontally through the warps.
A rug where the weft yarns are more closely spaced than the warps.
Weft twining:
A weft wrapping method where two wefts pass across warps, twisting together after each wrap or at regular intervals.
Whip stitch:
A stitch used to overcase and lock the final weft in rug ends.
A wool yarn of long staple with fibers that have been combed prior to spinning.